Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Gender Equity in the Classroom - Essay Example The role of an educator in an intercultural classroom is to ensure the each and every student in the classroom is able to communicate and amicably work with people from other cultures with tolerance, understanding and respect. The educator has to not only impart information about his / her subject to the student, but they must do so in such a way that every student, irrespective of cultural background can understand what is being taught and does not feel left out or belittled. One aspect that is often left unnoticed in education is gender inequality, which can definitely leave certain students feeling left out or neglected. Whether they are aware of it or not, there is always some discrimination based on gender in every school and by every teacher. Each person has a stereotypical idea of the behavior that should be exhibited by boys and girls and this idea influences their interaction with their students. Numerous studies have revealed that boys are encouraged to be straightforward a nd unreserved and are praised more often for academic performance than girls. A girl is expected to be good at studies while boys do not have the same level of expectations from their teachers. This assumption of a non-physical distinction in their abilities is exactly the bias that needs to be rooted out of educational institutions. A girl is criticized for speaking loudly, while a boy is excused for doing so.
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Copenhagen Historical Sciences - Essay Example 'Copenhagen' draws its inspiration form a much famous or we may say notorious historical incident that involves a meeting between the two patriarchs of quantum mechanics that is the Danish physicist Niels Bohr and his German protg Werner Heisenberg in 1941. Since then, this meeting had been a topic of intense debate, conjectures and surmises amongst the historians and scientists. Infact the recently released letters drafted by Niels Bohr have only added to the confusion and controversy associated with that brief collision of the two scientific luminaries at that momentous point of time. The incident in the play alludes to a critical period during the II World War when Denmark was invaded by the Nazis and was being retained as a protectorate state. Niels Bohr was a distinguished and immensely respected physicist of the times who decided to stay back in Copenhagen and was infact allowed by the Germans to continue to act as the director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics despite hi s Jewish origins. Werner Heisenberg, who was a German, came under the tutelage of Niels Bohr at more salubrious times in the mid 20s when he accepted a lectureship at the Institute. This lead to a series of ground breaking collaborations between the tow geniuses, that laid the foundations of the much famous Copenhagen interpretation. In March 1927, Heisenberg came out with his uncertainty principle that stated that it was impossible to determine the velocity and the exact position of a subatomic particle at the same time. Following this amazing revelation, Bohr enunciated his complimentarity principle in September 1927 that emphasized the dual nature of matter at the subatomic level and highlighted the simultaneous wavelike and particle like properties of matter. It is not a hidden secret that both the scientist parted ways and abandoned their friendly ties owing to the unpropitious political unfolding of the future that accentuated their ideological differences. Bohr being a half J ew was strongly averse to the tragic possibility of the Germans getting an atomic weapon while Heisenberg though not being an outright Nazi, was a self professed patriot who choose to support his nation in its scientific endeavors in those trying times. Both the scientists being aware of the possibilities inherent in the splitting of atom were not oblivious to its military implications. In 1941, Heisenberg came to see Bohr in the German occupied Copenhagen. What transpired between the two scientists in that short meeting is still an enigma. Whether Heisenberg wanted to eke out the details of the allied nuclear program from Bohr or whether he intended to solicit his support in preventing the development of A-bomb by both the sides is still open to conjectures. Frayn uses this incident as a literary context for his play and goes on to build an intense and enticing
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Leadership Organisational Performance And Emotional Intelligence Management Essay Introduction to the Problem The difficulty in studying concepts such as leadership, organisational performance, emotional intelligence and the interrelations between the three constructs, is that these terms are hard to define, describe, and to measure systematically. The disagreement among theorists concerning the definitions of these variables has led to further controversy about research design and instrumentation and to exacerbate this situation, there appears to be few gains being made to improve our understanding of these important concepts. Leadership is a difficult concept to fully appreciate and understand. Burns (1978) comments that Leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth (p. 19). This statement appears to be just as true and accurate today as it was when Burns made it. Since Burns made this powerful statement, the interest in understanding leadership and its consequences has intensified. While the term leadership has existed for centuries and has been most commo nly associated with the military, the emergence of manager, as a leader, is a relatively new phenomenon. Because of the perceived and actual influence of managers and their importance to globalisation, prosperity, and economic growth, interest in this new leader has been and continues to be intense. There are hundreds of studies that tend to popularise and evaluate managers to a level that seems unattainable by most. Yet for all of the books, articles, and studies available on leadership and the managers, who lead, there is very little known about the attitudes, behaviours and characteristics that engender effective manager performance. Even sparser is the information that tries to tie the leadership style of the managers with their emotional intelligence on the performance of the organisation. When the substantial body of leadership literature is reviewed there appears to be two clear distinctions made by the scholars. One body of work focuses on the internal dispositions or characteristics of the leaders while the second is concerned with the behaviours and activities of the same leaders. However, the connection between these two distinct views is not always clear or easy to understand. The current study was undertaken in an effort to address some of the gaps in empirical research and to apply the results of transformational leadership in one of public listed automotive manufacturing companies, EPMB in Malaysia where there is a dearth of such information available for manufacturing industry. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to examine the relationship between a managers score on transformational leadership with the performance of the organisation; (2) to explore the relationship between the constructs of transformational leadership and emotional intelligence; and (3) to find out if there is any positive relationship exists between organisational performance and transformational leadership with emotional intelligence presence. The current investigation extends prior empirical work in at least three ways. First, the study integrates trait and behavioural approaches to leadership effectiveness in a field that is relatively new one for the study of transformational leadership. Second, the total population consisted of practicing managers. Presently, there are very few empirical studies that examine the relationship among managers, transformational leadership behaviours, their emotional intelligence capabilities and organisational performance. Third, both objective (financial performance measures) and subjective evaluations (direct report responses) of leader effectiveness and emotional intelligence capabilities were utilised. This study adds value to the current leadership literature and plays a small role in bringing an old idea into the le adership light in Malaysia manufacturing industry. One frequently discussed theory is that of transformational leadership, first introduced by Burns in 1978. Transformational leaders change their organisations culture by inspiring a sense of mission and purpose about the importance of the groups work and stimulating new ways of thinking and problem solving (Bass Avolio, 1993). Transformational leaders inspire individuals within an organisation to work harder and to strive for the highest levels of performance (Bass, 1985). While Bass, Burns and Avolio support the applicability of transformational leadership to all forms of organisation, which includes the largest public companies, other investigators find transformational leadership is not universally applicable to organisations (Inkson, Kerr and Moss, 1993). To exacerbate the situation, there is no evidence to say emotional intelligence is the moderating factor to transformational leadership towards improving organisational performance. Background of the Study An understanding of the interplay between transformational leadership and organisational performance is an important factor for developing effective organisations. Finding ways to optimise the performance of people and hence, the organisation has been, and continues to be, a major concern for organisational leaders. Thus exploration on emotional intelligence capabilities of leaders is essential too. In todays service-based, knowledge economy, many companies are beginning to shift away from traditional models of management, originally developed for production oriented firms, and now require a broader range of leadership skills and styles that are adaptive to diversity and to dramatic, often discontinuous changes in the work environment. As globalisation becomes more pronounced especially in automotive industry, the changes may become even more dramatic as firms struggle to meet competition that only a few decades ago did not even exist. Some of the promising paradigms of leadership are including people in them and tend to describe people, which include managers, as the organisations most important assets. A summary of some of these is as follows: concern for people (Blake Mouton, 1964), the value of people (Sashkin, 1984), human concern (Kilman Saxton, 1991), individualized consideration (Bass, 1985), and people orientation (Cooke Lafferty, 1994). The importance of motivating people to complete tasks at a high level so that the organisation performs well is a key role of manager especially in Malaysia manufacturing industry and was one of the main reasons for this study. Transformational leaders motivate followers both to work for transcendental goals and to increase commitment and in doing so, perform beyond the expectations those followers have for themselves. Statement of the Problem The problem in this study was to determine the degree of relationship that exists between transformational leadership, emotional intelligence and organisational performance as measured by return of capital employed (ROCE) in one of local public listed automotive manufacturing company in Malaysia. The lack of current knowledge on this subject and between these variables hinders our ability to place a value on transformational leadership and emotional intelligence capabilities and their importance in organisational performance. By knowing such knowledge, it would help EPMB managers to employ effective transformational leadership effectively in the organisation, rather than transactional leadership which is primarily task-focused. Research indicated that transactional leadership was limited in terms of effectiveness (Vishalli Kumar, 2004). Purpose of the Study The purpose of this quantitative descriptive correlational study was to determine the relationship of transformational leadership to organisational performance in one of the local public listed automotive manufacturing companies in Malaysia, EPMB. The study utilised the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire developed by Bass and Avolio in 1995 (MLQ-5X) and Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) widely used by Boyatzis et al., 1999 in emotional intelligence research, to measure the level of transformational leadership and emotional intelligence capabilities respectively in each subsidiary companies of EPMB, i.e. PEPS-JV, EPP, FUNDWIN and EPMD. The overall strategy was to quantify the level of transformational leadership and emotional intelligence capabilities using scores on the MLQ and ECI respectively, and then correlate these with the organisations performance measured objectively by the organisations ROCE during the same period under these leaders. The focus of correlational research is to describe the relationships among variables rather than determine a cause-and-effect relationship. Correlational studies are useful to describe how one observable fact is related to another in situations where there is no control over some of the research variables (Lappe, 2000). In the current study, the variables of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership were believed to influence the organisational performance. Research Questions The following research questions were addressed in this study for EPMB company. Q1: Is there a significant relationship between transformational leadership and organisational performance? Q2: Is there a significant relationship between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence? Q3: Is there a significant relationship between transformational leadership with emotional intelligence and organisational performance? This study answered these questions through the analysis of data gathered utilising the MLQ-5X (Bass Avolio, 1995) and ECI (Boyatzis et al., 1999; Wolff, 2006). These questions were converted to hypotheses as below since this was a quantitative study and it is advisable that quantitative studies have either research questions or hypotheses, but not both (Creswell, 2003). The following are statements of null and alternative hypotheses that correspond to the research questions: H10: There is no statistically significant relationship between transformational leadership and organisational performance. H1A: There is a statistically significant, positive relationship between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence H20: There is no statistically relationship between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence. H2A: There is a statistically significant, positive relationship between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence. H30: There is no statistically significant relationship between transformational leadership with emotional intelligence and organisational performance. H3A: There is a statistically significant, positive relationship between transformational leadership with emotional intelligence and organisational performance. Significance of the Study This research project yielded new information regarding the importance of transformational leadership style to the automotive manufacturing companies in Malaysia. For the organisations performing well, this information presented the opportunity to understand the importance of leader and follower development to continue performing well, and for those not performing to a similar level, the data is cause for reflection and an opportunity for improving development policies or changing leadership styles. Since the data gathered in this study does indicate a significant relationship between transformational leadership style and the performance of the organisation with and without emotional intelligence presence, further research should be undertaken to build on this finding and hopefully to improve on the understanding and meaning of the relationships. Of equally important significance due to the dearth of information available on the relationships between the three constructs in Malaysia, the results of this study will be made available to all companies that participated. This study is a small start in the right direction for companies that need leaders to continue to attract the right people for sustainable performance. Bass and Avolio (1992) have concluded that transformational leadership is important and that leadership training of managers at all levels should become an integral component of organisational education. A final component of this study is its potential impact on the selection and hiring of managers. Managers typically have an enormous impact on their organisations, constituents, and communities. Therefore, the compounded costs of making a mistake in the selection, hiring, or promotion of managers can be financially and operationally staggering. If transformational leadership is the correct and upcoming style for a utomotive manufacturing companies in Malaysia, then the selection teams could begin to narrow the focus and save time, money, and maybe companies by selecting the most effective leaders to lead their companies. In addition, since there are relationships between the variables, additional predictors of manager success can now be developed and shared with other organisations in Malaysia, thereby aiding in industry development and expansion and possibly enhancing Malaysias competitive position. Definition and Terms For the purposes of this research study, there are several terms that are necessary to address and they are as follows. Correlation. A correlation exists when the measurements of one variable either increases or decreases as the other variable increases or decreases (Leedy Ormrod, 2005). Correlational study. Correlational research study designs involve either the identification of characteristics in an observed phenomenon or exploring possible correlations regarding two or more variables (Leedy Ormrod, 2005). Descriptive research design. A means for providing a systemic manner by which facts and/or characteristics of an existing occurrence, or occurrences, are described (Leedy Ormrod, 2005). Emotional intelligence. The ability to recognise ones own feelings and the feelings of others for the purpose of motivating ourselves and for effectively managing the emotions in ourselves and in others (Wolff, 2006). Organisational performance. In this study, it was defined as return on capital employed (ROCE) over 2005-2009. Quantitative research approach. A method by which researchers use post positivist acclamations in creating facts and predetermined inquiries such as experiments, surveys, and data collection tools to measure statistical data (Creswell, 2003). Transformational leadership. This is the basis for the study and the researchers primary interest. It could mean different things to different readers unless properly defined. For Bass and Avolio (1993), transformational leadership contains the interrelated components of charisma or idealised influence (attributed or behavioural), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualised consideration. Transformational leadership behaviours are influential in motivating follower change and transforming followers to be more aware of task outcomes, activating their highest order needs, and extending beyond their own self-interest for the benefit of the organisation. Assumptions The first assumption in this study was that transformational leadership is an effective leadership style based on previous studies even though none have been related to the automotive manufacturing companies in Malaysia. Most previous studies were related to the military, non-profits institutions, or educational institutions. A second assumption was that there are similarities between the subsidiary companies of EPMB being researched even though they operate in different ways due to their products, customers and locations. It is possible that organisational performance is impacted by business climate to a similar degree as that by transformational leadership. A third and final assumption was that the managers/leaders (self reports) more truthfully answer the MLQ-5X and ECI even though this may not be the case in all completed surveys. This has been reported in other studies regarding leadership and emotional intelligence, and may have affected data and perceived relationships between the variables studied. The researcher was cognizant of these findings and tried to ensure that steps were taken to minimize such influences. Limitations Bias within a study can be minimized by not exposing the purpose or desired outcome to participants. The population for the current study was limited to 20 managers within EPMB who participated by taking the MLQ-5X (Bass Avolio, 1995) and ECI (Boyatzis et al., 1999; Wolff, 2006). Although the participants were informed of the study, no specifics were given as to the purpose or desired outcome. The population for the current study was limited because of availability, EPMB permission, and the amount of time available to conduct the study. The study was limited to managers who identify themselves as having worked a company in one of the subsidiary companies during the fiscal year of 2005. The population studied was quantitatively small, but it was an accurate representation of all managerial skill levels. This was because the sample population accounted 42.6% of all managers in EPMB. In addition, the sample group exemplified the various mix and types of operations throughout the organisation. The validity of the study was limited to the reliability of the structured testing instrument along with the participants perception of their leadership behaviours. A relatively new, self-reporting instrument (see Appendix A) was used to measure the levels of transformational leadership and emotional intelligence within managers using MLQ-5X and ECI respectively. The instrument for the current research study was considered cross-sectional since data were collected during one particular timeframe and not over a period of years (Creswell, 2003; Leedy Ormrod, 2005). Cross-sectional and self-reporting instruments are necessary for the assessment of self and others, but they have limitations. Nevertheless, Emmerling and Goleman (2003) stated that the limitations of such tests produced an insignificant amount of discrepancy. Most of the self-reporting instruments are primarily concerned with the connection between detailed behaviors and explicit personas. Self-reporting instruments are better indicators of organisational performance than self-assessment tools (Emmerling Goleman, 2003). Detailed Dissertation Framework and Study Variables Figure 1.1 is a more detailed representation of the relationship between transformational leadership (TL) and emotional intelligence and their impact can have on the performance of the organisation as a whole. The underlying premise is that transformational leadership does influence individuals who in turn impact the organisation with emotional intelligence as a moderating factor. The question that this study tried to answer was: What are the relationships and how do the relationships impact ROCE in the organisation over time? The elements in Figure 1.1 marked with the asterisks are those that were identified in the literature as being the most prevalent especially in studies that cited the work of Bass (1985), and Bass and Avolio (1990, 1995). The overall flow of the diagram suggests that the leader impacts the follower, and as the leaders behaviors impact more and more followers and as the range of impact increases, the organisations performance is improved. As the organisation imp roves with respect to many of the measures highlighted in Figure 1.1, it affects the ROCE of the firm and that is what this study tried to determine. Transformational Leadership Employee Effects/ Behaviours Organisational Effects/ Contributing Factors Attributed charisma Idealised influence Inspirational motivation Individualised consideration Managing change Increased productivity Achieving goals Coordinating teamwork Job satisfaction Increased self-confidence Increased performance (at all levels)*** Increased follower motivation*** Willingness to put forth extra effort*** Increased optimism Increase in learning activities Increase in innovative thinking Performance of ROCE Lower overall costs Increased sales Proactive change management Better communication Higher corporate goals Better quality products Increased customer service Increased educational opportunities More RD activities Emotional Intelligence Organisational Performance (measured by ROCE) Self-awareness Self-management Self-awareness Social awareness Social skills Figure 1.1: Detailed framework with study variables and contributing factors Table 1.1 identifies the major research questions in the study that were translated into hypotheses since the study is a quantitative one. It identifies the independent and dependent variables, as well as the statistical tests chosen to appropriately analyse the potential relationship between the dependent, independent and moderating variables. As outlined below, there were three research questions that were translated into three hypotheses (Hypothesis 1, Hypothesis 2 and Hypothesis 3), the independent variable (transformational leadership score), the dependent variable (ROCE), the moderating variable (level of emotional intelligence) and the applicable statistical tests. Figure 1.1: Research Questions, Hypotheses, Variables, and Statistical Tests Question Hypotheses Independent /Moderator Variable Independent/ Dependent Variable Statistical Test What is the relationship between TL and ROCE performance? H1: There is no statistically significant relationship between transformational leadership and organisational performance TL score on MLQ measured by questionnaires (Independent variable) ROCE performance (Dependent variable) Homogeneity of Variance test, ANOVA analysis, Pearsons correlation coefficient, What is the relationship between TL and EI? H2: There is no statistically relationship between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence EI score on ECI measured by questionnaires (Section B) (Moderator variable) TL score on MLQ-5X measured by questionnaires (Section A) (Independent variable) Homogeneity of Variance test, ANOVA analysis, Pearsons correlation coefficient Figure 1.1: (Continued) Question Hypotheses Independent /Moderator Variable Independent/ Dependent Variable Statistical Test What is the relationship between TL, EI and ROCE performance? H3: There is no statistically significant relationship between transformational leadership with emotional intelligence and organisational performance TL score on MLQ-5X measured by questionnaires (Section A) (Independent variable) EI score on ECI measured by questionnaires (Section B) (Moderator variable) ROCE performance (Dependent variable) Partial correlation, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis Organisation of the Remainder of the Study The remainder of the study is devoted to the discussion of transformational leadership and emotional intelligence and their relationships to organisational performance based on several earlier studies. Chapter 2 is the literature review for the key variable in the study. Chapter 3 describes the methodology for the research study. Chapter 4 discusses the results of the questionnaire survey (MLQ-5X and ECI) in addition to the objective performance measure (ROCE) of the companies based on press releases, annual reports, and analysts reports. Chapter 5 is a discussion of the results including: limitations of the measures and procedures, conclusions, and implications for future research.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Time constraints meant I couldn't cover everything I wanted to cover during Ã¢â¬ËTopic'. Other investigations that may have been included are: Artificial Selection Why are cows and sheep not extinct? Why are there so many kinds of dog? Where do red, blue and black roses come from? What are yellow bananas? Sexual Selection Why do peacocks -and many other birds Ã¢â¬â have such beautiful plumage?A predator can find them easily, so why have they evolved that way? A festive' example (cough): Why do reindeer have antlers? 1 Do Mammals Have Emotions? Do mammals experience fear, happiness, sadness, grief? I hope to address these and other questions during Science. In the meantime, here is a collection of books which you may or may not find useful: Richard Adkins' book is a hardcore response to all who question evolution as scientific fact. Chris Stringer works at the National History Museum and is often called upon by the media to explain the origins of modern humans.His The Origin of o ur Species is a popular and engaging read which sets out to answer all the big questions in the debate about our origins. The graphic adaptation of Origins by Keller and illustrator Nicolle Rage Fuller is a marvelous version of Darning's seminal work. The illustrations are drawn from Darning's own words, including his diaries and letters. The book is brought up to date with a graphic account of recent breakthroughs in evolutionary science. It would make a wonderful gift for teenagers and adults with an interest in evolutionary theory. I love it. The nutty looking book by Murphy is funny, informative and perfect for Yr 5/6 +.I would highly recommend it for use when planning the Ã¢â¬ËLife' units in the Science SOW. The final book would be enjoyed by Yr/6 and anyone requiring a gentle introduction to Darwin and his ideas. The first lesson is a look at the Genesis account and other creation myths, but don't let that fool you into thinking this plan is creationism or so-called Ã¢â¬Ëi ntelligent' design in disguise, it most definitely isn't! It is a celebration of Charles Darwin and evolutionary theory. I believe Darning's Ã¢â¬Å"dangerous ideaÃ¢â¬ is one of the most important topics we'll ever teach our kids. I hope you enjoy teaching it. Kind regards,Lou Armor Darwin, Evolution and the Origins of Life L 1/2 Ã¢â¬â All Things Bright And Beautiful Success Criteria I can write a creation myth. Intro Entry song: Sing the first verse of All Things Bright And Beautiful. What is the hymn about? Why do you think it was written? Does anybody know of any other songs, rhymes, etc that describe the rich diversity of life found on earth? Show: How God created the world. Http://www. Youth. Com/watch? V=7_Acquiesced=related What is the little girl attempting to explain? Where did she get the explanation from? Display the relevant Genesis passage as a timetable.What do you think about the Genesis story as an explanation of life? Are there any oddities about the Genesis ac count? How old do you think the world is according to Genesis? (Creationists believe the world is only 6000-10,000 years old). Activity Entry question: All cultures have creation myths. Do you know of any? Greek, Egyptian, Norse? Rudyard Kipling? How many creation myths do you think there are? Is there any reason why any one story should be the Ã¢â¬Ëcorrect' one? Part 1 Story Telling Task Show the clips, complete with a brief discussion of their story features/structure between each.Record the features, etc on the board for later use. How elephant got his trunk http://www. Youth. Com/watch? V=bishop_ICQ How Zebra got her stripes http://www. Youth. Com/watch? V=Mississippi=related Why Bat flies at night http://www. Youth. Com/watch? V=pedophilia pop=related LA Ã¢â¬â Referring to the board prompts and pictures children plan and write their own story book from ONE of Elephant, Zebra and Baboon, Koala or Bat. MA/HA- + those LA who wish to do so Ã¢â¬â work in pairs and write an o riginal and creative story for ONE of the following: How Tiger got her stripes How Peacock got his feathersLeopard got his spots How Kangaroo got her pouch How Tortoise got his shell How bear got her stumpy tail How Encourage children to act out their story as a means of composing it and telling it. Inform HA children that they will be telling their story during Ã¢â¬ËMyth Time'. Activity continues overleaf. Part 2 Outdoor Task: Critical Thinking entry: a) Observation and discussion walk around the top field/Dingles Dell/flower beds, etc. Ask critical questions Ã¢â¬â lots of why and how Ã¢â¬â about Ã¢â¬Ësupernatural design', leaf structure, complexity, etc without straying into Darwin and evolution. ) Inform hillier that scientists estimate the world to be about 5. 1 billion years old. Create the Ã¢â¬ËThe Lo Roll Timeline'. Say, Wow! Ã¢â¬Ë Discuss. Take photos. C) Uri-peg two of the lines, remove their post-its and add them to the Zero end of one of the other lines so t hat you have one long line made up of three of the original lines. Line 1 (with it's post-its in place) + Line 2 + Line 3 = The Age of the Universe. Now take a look at the red edge! So where would the Genesis 6,000 Ã¢â¬â 10,000 years be now!!!!? Microscopic! Assessment and Look Forward IQ: Did anybody notice anything odd about Day 1 and Day 4? E below) What are your thoughts about the Genesis story in light of making the Ã¢â¬ËLo Roll Timeline? Why would an all powerful, caring and gentle God create a wasp which seeks only to burrow into the bodies of living caterpillars with the intention of eating them from the inside? What is the point of it? For the next lesson: Ask children to bring in as many toy animals and small world vegetation as they can carry. Ask children to begin making a list in their Diaries of the types of living things they see day to day and to bring it in next lesson. Onto been Ã¢â¬â Those Diaries may have a use after all.Talking with friends and family Do es science have anything to say about life on earth? Can anyone think of any really old things that have been found, in a rock or on a beach, say? Scientific evidence tells us that the earth is over 5 billion years old. Life first originated in the oceans 3. 4 billion years ago. The dinosaurs died out 65 million years in the past. The first modern humans (Homo Sapiens) appeared 100,000 yr ago but the recorded history of humans stretches back only 10,000 years in time. Find out more about these things. Talk about these things with a friend for next time.Begin making your own Evolution Journal at home (It could be a combination of literacy homework and voluntary work, so there could be an incentive of some sort I. E. Credits). Lesson Resources Writing and drawing materials. Lo rolls, tents pegs, knitting needles, long nails, post-it notes. Teaching Support Creation myths: http://www. Magical. Com/creationism. HTML AY: God supposedly creates light and separates light from darkness, and day from night, on the first day. Yet he didn't make the light producing objects (the sun and the stars) until the fourth day.So how could there be Ã¢â¬Å"the evening and the morningÃ¢â¬ on the first day if there as no sun to mark them? Myth Time: Split the children into groups for Ã¢â¬ËMyth Time' on the carpet and around tables, etc. HA children read/act out their story to their group. On completion Ã¢â¬â if time allows Ã¢â¬â children move to another story teller. Further stories, including, Elephant, Zebra, Bat, can be told at the end of each day over the course of the week. L 3-4 Endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful None as such. The aim here is to inspire awe and wonder. Learning about classification is a bonus! 3 Introduction Endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful. Entry activity: Children place their toys and small world materials on their tables. Entry phrase: Write the above phrase on the board and read it aloud using an dramatic voice to inje ct a sense of wonder. Ask the children if they can figure out what this exquisite phrase refers to. Ask: If forms' means Ã¢â¬Ëkinds of, what do you think is being described? (The above phrase is taken from the conclusion of Darning's On The Origin of Species By Natural Selection, 1859).Entry Sq: How many kinds of living organisms exist upon on the earth? 4 How many have been made extinct? 5 Task 1: Using toy animals, small world vegetation and large whets of paper children to begin to make a (HUGE! ) list of living organisms (use this term repeatedly throughout term). Prompt children for as wide a variety of living organisms as possible. Can children see any similarities or differences between the organisms listed/shown? Task 2: Using toy animals, small world vegetation and large sheets of paper: How can living organisms be grouped into different things?Children use their own grouping criteria to group them. What discoveries have they made? What problems ensue? Help by providing p rompts: weeds, trees, flowers, insects, micro-organisms, marine, land and air life. How far can children keep going with the groups? Would a Venn diagram help? (MA/HA math children especially). Do any of the living things live and exist in 2 or 3 environments? (amphibians, flying insects, seabirds, otters, turtles, etc) Outdoor Competition: Teams fill a matchbox with as many different living organisms as possible.Discuss the results. Tell me something about the lists and diagrams we have made. Help children to develop a sense of awe and wonder at the diversity of life. Finish with Where do these endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful come from? Ã¢â¬ËHow is such diversity possible? Inform children that they will be learning more about the classification of living organisms during Science. For the next lesson: Ask children to bring in: a toy dinosaur, animal or doll, a box for the toy, a simple gardening tool for digging e. G. A small fork or trowel.Darning's pod: Charles D arwin loved listening to music and dancing with pretty ladies Ã¢â¬â I know, I know but that's because people only ever see the photos of him as an old man Ã¢â¬â so we are going to begin a collection of music that Darwin would have on his pod were he alive today. Who would like to be the collector of the pod music? You will be responsible for overseeing the downloading of any requested amp track and recording the name of it's contributor. To be a contributor you will have to pay its cost Ã¢â¬â via my Amazon account Ã¢â¬â which will probably be between 50-app per track.For example, I will pay for Louis Armstrong's What a wonderful World', price app. At the end of the topic we shall celebrate Darwin and have his pod playing in the back ground whilst we do so. Collectors and contributors Ã¢â¬â in role biz. The great man Ã¢â¬â could present Charles Darning's Ã¢â¬ËGalapagos Island Discs' to parents during our class- based assembly. Ask children to think about these and other questions and to discuss them with their friends before the next lesson. Ask the children to wonder what they might be learning about next time? Large sheets of paper, post-its, card for labels and drawing materials.The scope for CIT use in every one of these lesson is enormous Ã¢â¬â interactive timeliness, natural selection games, movies, etc but the notebook are too small, too unreliable, and too few in number for all classes to be using simultaneously. And Ã¢â¬Ë1 between 2' tends to cause more problems than it solves? Perhaps Joy could ad many of the links to our lass web pages so kids can explore them at home? Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Charles_Darwin See also the resources I have put on the R:drive. In addition I have several books about Darwin and evolution which people may wish to borrow. L 5/6 Ã¢â¬â Darning's great adventure.I know what fossils are, how they are made and what they can tell us. I can describe what Darwin saw on his voyage aboard the Beagle and some of the difficulties he faced collecting his specimens . Charles Darning's great adventure. Entry question: Hold up a Ole note and ask: Who is this? What is she famous for? Turn it over and ask Who is this? What is he famous for? Explain that he is probably the most important scientist who ever lived. And he's British! Explain that Charles Darning's theory of evolution was the first scientific theory to explain the appearance of not Just some, but all living species.Darning's theory told us how all living things are related. It also explained the origin of new species, why some species became extinct and the reason for the great variety of life on earth, why there are so many Ã¢â¬Å"endless forms most beautiful and most wonderfulÃ¢â¬ . Entry Sq: Who was Charles Darwin? Give children a potted history of his early life. See below) Display pictures of the young Darwin Ã¢â¬â he was only 25 Ã¢â¬â the map of Beagle's Journey and tell the story of the Beagle's voyage and of th e many wonderful things Darwin observed. Talk about Darning's fossils finds.Do you know what fossils are? Do you know where they are found? Http://www. Youth. Com/watch? V=KxDQwBZJ908=related Show fossil pictures and discuss. What are fossils? What do they tell us? What do marine fossils tell us when they are found at the top of a mountain? Describe and illustrate Darning's fossil finds. It may help yr to remind them of their Ã¢â¬ËMountains' epic and mountain rock layers are formed. Display the Homologous Structures picture. Chi work with a friend to solve the puzzle illustrated. What are the skeletons evidence of? What can be inferred from them? Remind chi about inferring from a text). Outdoor Task: Play at being paleontologists and fossil hunters. Children make fossils outdoors. (A day or two later they again play at being paleontologists and dig up another's fossil, taking care not to damage it, Just as real scientists do). Take photos. Part 2- Darning's observations caused him to think very deeply about Evolution. Evolution is about change over time. Specifically, it is about how species change over time. Emphasis the excitement, wonder and scientific endeavourer of observation in such weird and wonderful environments.What practical and/or scientific problems do you think Darwin faced? Watch the clip and answer these questions: How did such a wide variety of living organisms first appear on the Galapagos? After arriving what did many species begin to do? Http://science. Discovery. Com/videos/Galapagos-beyond-Darwin-Charles- Darwin. HTML What does Ã¢â¬Ëadapting mean? Can you give me an example from the clip? How do some of the organisms survive? Http://science. Discovery. Com/videos/ Galapagos-beyond-Darwin-creatures-of-Galapagos. HTML The things that help an organism survive are called traits' and they can be passed on.Most traits are inherited (but not all), a bit like passing on hair and eye color. Show photos of a family if it helps clarification. A sk children to think about what the fossil record and the Genesis account tell us about the age of the earth and all that live upon it. What do they make of the fact that both geology and the fossil record tell us that the earth is billions of years old, et the bible says the earth was created only 6000 years ago? Which account is based on evidence and which account is simple belief?Help children to distinguish between scientific facts based upon other facts and overwhelming evidence, and stories which require only belief. A detective's Who done-it' puzzle may help (Sherlock Holmes was incorrect: it's inductive not deductive reasoning). For the next lesson: Ask children to bring in a yoghurt tub, tongs, pegs, ladles and anything else that can be used as a pretend bird beak. The wider the range of implements the better. We also need plastic cups cut in half, very thin milk straws remind me to get some from Nursery and Reception waste bins! , long balloons, Jelly beans, smarmiest, a c ouple of tins of fruit cocktail, soft fruits, berries, fruit Juice, chick peas, peas, seeds, etc for food and at least one washing up bowl and a cereal or fruit bowl per 4 children. Ask children to bring in handfuls of the food stuff and can chuck it in a class box ready for the lesson. Talk about fossils. Find more clips and videos about fossils and the Galapagos Islands and watch them together. Make one at home and put a photo of it in your Journal. Draw pre-historic fossils such as Trilobites, too. Plaster of Paris or similar.Toy dinosaurs and dolls (undressed). Digging implements. Small brushes. A cardboard box for each toy brought in. A tent peg or nail. Post-it notes. Why are there no transitional fossils? Is a question a parent may ask. Here is an answer put in terms of a family photo album. Http://www. Youth. Com/watch? V=QywH7FOeKJO=mfu_in_order=UL This one shows evolutionary theory being used to predict which fossils should be found. Fabulous examples shown. It also explai ns why a crop-duck fossil (half crocodile, half duck) will never be found?The crocodile is a favorite line of Ã¢â¬Ëcriticism' by creationists and dim celebrities). Http://www. Youth. Com/watch? V=l_Dad_Eight=autoplay=ULQywH7FOeKJO=5=1 Re: Science: Children will be learning more about the variation, adaptation and habitats of living organisms during Science. However, their intellectual Journey will travel beyond the dreary diet of tautologies and soporific science found in the CA sow. L 7/8 Ã¢â¬â Evolution, Natural Selection and Ã¢â¬Å"the struggle for survivalÃ¢â¬ . I can describe/explain how species change over time.I can describe/explain how inherited traits enable a species to survive. Natural Selection and Ã¢â¬Å"the struggle for survivalÃ¢â¬ . Entry Joke Two friends are in the woods when a bear starts chasing them. The first friend begins to run. The second shouts, Mimi can't outrun a bear! Ã¢â¬ The first friend looks over his shoulder and replies, Ã¢â¬Å"l don't ha ve to. I only have to outrun you. Ã¢â¬ Is there anything we can learn from this Joke? Entry Quotation It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change. Display the above.Can children illustrate its meaning with an example? Polar bears? Brown hares? Cactus? Explain that organisms have adapted to survive in many different environments. The question of how they evolved (changed) was Darning's gift to the world. Ask: What does Ã¢â¬Ëevolution' describe? Recall that evolution is about change. Explain Darwin was not the first to propose that species evolve (change) but he was the first to explain it. At least the first to explain it in a way that made sense and held up to scientific evidence. How does change occur? Darning's explanation is called natural selection.It is such a simple (but profound) incept that we can describe it in one sentence: Those living things born with traits that giv e some advantage in survival and reproduction, will tend on average to leave more offspring that have those very traits. That's it. That's why species evolve (change). That's why large amounts of time can result in large amounts of change. So what might Ã¢â¬Ëadvantages' look like? Display and explain Darning's finches using the picture from the Natural Selection PPTP. Slide. Inform children that they are about to take part in the Ã¢â¬ËBird Beak Struggle'. Task 1: In groups of four, children play Ã¢â¬ËBird Beak Struggle'.Ask: Some of your Ã¢â¬Ëbeaks' were more successful at obtaining food than others. Why was that? What were the advantages of having beak X? What were the disadvantages of having beak X?
Friday, January 10, 2020
African-American rights were not easily given but rather earned throughout decades of protests. Struggles for race equality in America have gone peaceful and violent. There are numerous African-Americans (blacks) leaders and personalities who stood up to proclaim the world their stories and sentiments. Some of them tried to enter the politics, some excelled in academics and some devoted their time in propagandizing through their literary works. James Baldwin is one of the remarkable black writers whose essays have powerful impact on the civil rights struggle. This essay aims to provide insight on James BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Notes of a Native Son essay through searching for facts and patterns of African-American history. To begin with establishing the essay let us take a short review about the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s biography. James Baldwin was born on Harlem, New York City in August 2, 1924 and an illegitimate son of a domestic worker. He adopted his surname from his stepfather and was raised in great poverty. He began full-time writing on 1943 and produced various novels and essays like Go Tell It on the Mountain and Notes of a Native Son, respectively. The book Notes of a Native Son (1955) is a collection of his BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s personal essays about the social environment of America during the era of Civil Rights Movement. One chapter of the book is entitled Notes of a Native Son which commenced with the events of August 3, 1943 which is the day we now know as the Harlem Race Riots. The essay Notes of a Native Son was themed and patterned after the life of James Baldwin especially his relationship with his parents. Baldwin has mixed emotions towards his father and he tried to explain the complexity of their relationship in his works. He provided a creative link of his experiences with his parents with the ongoing public and private happenings in his era. The story was stressed in the historical Harlem Race Riots of 1943, a city-wide riot following the famous Detroit Riot. The Detroit Riot is one of the most violent riots in America which lasted for almost two full days and took out about 34 lives and done casualties of injuries and property damages. What is the cause of such riot? Similar to what Harlem Riot has, the causes are not specific. Generally, it was considered to be caused by culmination of petite situations such as gossips, hot tempers and neighbour riots. Whites and blacks were pointing their fingers to each other as to who started or provoked the fights (Hughes, et al. 104). Similar to BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s personal life as metaphorically illustrated in his essay, his relationship with his parents was chaotic and there were several personal issues and causes that triggered every persona to act the way they were in the story. Baldwin showed his insights into the lives of African-Americans after the World War II. The essay mainly discussed the white versus black riots thus it is crucial to understand the essay using the history and facts. The story employed the history of Harlem Race Riot, a commotion exploded in New York City exactly at the date of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and days before BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s nineteenth birthday. It is not far that Harlem became a place of riots because since the turn of twentieth century the place has been a home to many ethnic groups including whites and blacks. With the diverse people converging in the place, arts and culture has become diverse as well. However, having diverse cultures cause difficulties aside from the beauty diversity has brought unto them. Difficulties such as racism emerge which are expressed n theatre, fiction, music, literature and other art forms (Ã¢â¬Å"Harlem HistoryÃ¢â¬ ). Harlem riots have two periods, one in 1935 and one in 1943. Both periods started with a confrontation between blacks and the police. In 1943, the riot began with a clash in a hotel between black soldier Robert Bandy and a policeman. The story was distorted and versions like Bandy was killed by the police came out in gossips. With the confusion and bursting emotions of the blacks, fires broke out and glasses were shattered while police struggled to maintain control (Gilje 157). If we are to look close, there is a pattern between the riots in Detroit and Harlem. The emotions of Detroit blacks might be shared by Harlem blacks thus made Harlem riot of 1943 more dramatic than the original. The one in Harlem was more physical and emotional than the one in Detroit because of the use of guns. In relation with the essay Notes of a Native Son, parents of Baldwin and the people at Harlem were treated as parallels. This is the reason why the essay was considered to be an autobiographical piece of BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Baldwin loved and despised his father at the same time because his father gave him essential lessons in life but demonstrated lack of hope when it comes in blacks struggling for civil rights. Being a wide reader and socially conscious person, Baldwin did not share the same emotions with his father and became a civil rights advocate. With his wide knowledge on the undergoing of blacks during his time, he came out with insights reflecting the sentiments of blacks, especially Harlem people. BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s father can be compared with majority of the blacks during his time. Just like the passive blacks, BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s father needed an event that could awaken and trigger him to stand up against black oppression. For Baldwin, it is not enough to just see what the existing things but rather it is much important for people to act upon calling. There was already a need for a change in American society and Baldwin was trying to provoke the hearts of blacks to unite through his powerful fiction. The fiction is not actually fiction as it served as a mirror of Harlem society at his time. The public share sentiment but there was a need to unite them because without oneness, the protests will not be seriously taken and the riots will not promote change. The diverse culture gave Harlem problems but Baldwin used its product (powerful literature) as the tool which can help them solve the problem. Without the literature Baldwin and other black essayists wrote, the public black will not be more vigilant with their surroundings. The blacks will continue resorting with riots which is not the only effective key to cry out for change. Baldwin was successful in showing that his insights were not only due to his personal experiences. His sentiments and insights were product of the root problems of the society. He has the clear picture of the reasons why blacks need change. His personal experiences may be not so similar with all other blacks but the message he wanted them to realize was acceptable. Although there is no definite or exact truth about the root of Harlem race riots, Baldwin still brought to the public the summary of their problems. With this, aside from the literary expertise he showed, he can be coined as one of the strongest black personalities during his time. He inspired many other writers like Toni Morrison and photo-journalist Kevin Brown who founded the National James Baldwin Literary Society. With the number of existing essayists acknowledging Baldwin, his legacy continues and the struggle of blacks for full civil rights remain alive.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
A vanitas painting is a particular style of still life that was immensely popular in the Netherlands beginning in the 17th century. The style often includes with worldly objects such as books and wine and you will find quite a few skulls on the still life table. Its intent is to remind viewers of their own mortality and the futility of worldly pursuits. Vanitas Reminds Us of Vanities The wordÃ vanitasÃ is Latin for vanity and that is the idea behind a vanitas painting. They were created to remind us that our vanity or material possessions and pursuits do not preclude us from death, which is inevitable. The phrase comes to us courtesy of a biblical passage in Ecclesiastes. In the King James Version (Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity,) the Hebrew word hevel was incorrectly translated to mean vanity of vanities, when it means pointless, meaningless, futile. But for this slight mistranslation, vanitas would rightfully be known as a meaningless painting, which is far from the intent of the makers. The Symbolism of Vanitas Paintings A vanitas painting, while possibly containing lovely objects, always included some reference to mans mortality. Most often, this is a human skull (with or without other bones), but items likeÃ burning candles, soap bubbles and decaying flowers may be used for this purpose as well. Other objects are placed in the still life to symbolize the various types of worldly pursuits that tempt humans. For example, secular knowledge like that found in the arts and sciences may be depicted by books, maps, or instruments. Wealth and power have symbols likeÃ gold, jewelry, and precious trinkets while fabrics, goblets, and pipes might represent earthly pleasures. Beyond the skull to depict impermanence, a vanitas painting may also include references to time, such as a watch or hourglass. It may use decaying flowers or rotting food for the purpose as well. In some paintings, the idea of the resurrection is included as well, represented as sprigs of ivy and laurel or ears of corn. To add to the symbolism, you will find vanitas paintings with the subjects placed in disarray compared to other, very tidy, still life art. This is designed to represent the chaos that materialism can add to a pious life. Vanitas is very similar to another type of still life painting,Ã known as memento mori. Latin for rememberÃ you must die, this style tended to include only those objects that remind us of death and refrained from using the materialistic symbols. A Religious Reminder Vanitas paintings wereÃ meant not only as works of art, they also carried an important moral message. They were designed to remind us that the trivial pleasures of life are abruptly and permanentlyÃ wiped out by death.Ã It is doubtful that this genre would have been popular had the Counter-Reformation and Calvinism not propelled it into the limelight. Both movementsÃ¢â¬âone Catholic, the other ProtestantÃ¢â¬âoccurred at the same time as vanitas paintings were becoming popular, and scholars today interpret them as warning against the vanities of life and the representation of the Calvinist morality of the day. Like the symbolic art, the two religious efforts emphasized the devaluing of possessions and success in this world. They instead, focused believers on their relationship with God in preparation for the afterlife. The Vanitas Painters The primary period of vanitas paintings lasted from 1550 to around 1650. They began as still lifes painted on the backside of portraits as an explicit warning to the subject, and evolved into featured works of art. The movement was centered around the Dutch city of Leiden, a Protestant stronghold, though it was popular throughout the Netherlands and in parts of France and Spain. In the beginning of the movement, the work was very dark and gloomy. Toward the end of the period, however, it did lighten up a bit. The message in vanitas paintings became that although the world is indifferent to human life, the beauty of the world can be enjoyed and contemplated. Considered a signature genre in Dutch Baroque art, a number of artists were famous for their vanitas work. These include Dutch painters like David Bailly (1584Ã¢â¬â1657), Harmen van Steenwyck (1612Ã¢â¬â1656), and Willem Claesz Heda (1594Ã¢â¬â1681). Some French painters worked in vanitas as well, the best-known of which was Jean Chardin (1699Ã¢â¬â1779). Many of these vanitas paintings are considered great works of art today. You can also find a number of modern artists working in this style. Yet, many people wonder at the popularity of vanitas paintings by collectors. After all, doesnt the painting itself become a symbol of vanitas? Sources and Further Reading BergstrÃ ¶m, Ingvar. Dutch Still Life in the 17th Century. Hacker Art Books, 1983.Grootenboer, Hanneke. The Rhetoric of Perspective: Realism and Illusionism in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Still Life Painting. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005.Koozin, Kristine. The Vanitas Still Lifes of Harmen Steenwyck: Metaphoric Realism. Lampeter, Wales: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990.
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Ancient Chinese Philosophies: Comparisons between Lao Su and Confucius Daoism and Confucianism are two of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest religions. Both of these menÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings largely affect ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s belief system today, and both still widely practiced and still have temples all over the world. Confucianism helped shape ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s education system that still stands today, and Daoism has been helping people understand Ã¢â¬Å"the wayÃ¢â¬ of life since the Han Dynasty. They are both very similar to each other, but at the same time they have many differences. Both philosophies are very similar to each other, but at the same time they have many differences. During the time of 6th century B.C.E., philosophy in ancient China grew fundamentally. This is because during this time, the two most influential spiritual mentors lived and taught their philosophies in China. Lao Su and Confucius practiced and instilled their own philosophies, Daoism and Confucianism. The exact details of the lives of these two men have been essentially lost over the last 2,000 years, but they are still two of the most influential philosophers in ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s history. These teachers spread their beliefs during the same period of time in ancient China, and both of their practices have been drawing in followers over the last 2500 years. Both religions are widely practiced today, Daoism and Confucianism have gained popularity all over the Western world and remains two of the most popular religious practices in the East as well, and theShow MoreRelatedThe Influence of Accessibility: A Comparison of the Views of Lao-Tzu and Confucius1610 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInfluenc e of Accessibility A comparison between Lao Tzu and Confucius, as well as that between the respective philosophies each of these individuals is believed to have propounded, is fairly natural and, in certain respects, fairly inevitable. Both scholars were believed to have existed during the same time period, from approximately the seventh through the fourth centuries B.C.E. (although it should be noted that there is an overwhelming body of evidence that indicates that Lao Tzu may not have been anRead More Chinese Shih Poetry And Philosophy Essay1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Since the beginning of time, man has sought to explain the world around him. This is called philosophy, a Greek word which means quot;love of wisdom.quot; However, over the millennia it has come to mean much more. The philosophies of the ancient Chinese people, whether they explain nature or present ways to live a just life, became so complex that simple prose could not suitably express their meaning. Yet paradoxically, the simpler, less exact form of poetry does put forth the ideas. NowhereRead MoreCultural Difference11630 Words Ã |Ã 47 Pages absorbed and adopted. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of market needs is framed by his or her own cultural experience. More than factual knowledge of Chinese culture the interpretative knowledge is very important and difficult, since it comes from a matrix of philosophic, religion and political explanations which are completely different of the western one. Chinese Ã¢â¬Å"guanxiÃ¢â¬ , emphasizes personal trust building, the use of social bon ds in dealing with partners, competitors and clients in general good personalRead MoreConfucianism in Journey to the West31834 Words Ã |Ã 128 PagesCulture of China Course: Visual Political Communication (BA3) Semester: Summer Semester 2011/2012 Lecturer: Florian Schneider Journey to the West A Textual-Visual Discourse Analysis Name: Stefan Ruijsch (Student No. 0620203) Major: Chinese Studies, BA 3 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 06-48369645 Address: Vrijheidslaan 256, 2321 DP Leiden Word Count: 9,387 Table of Contents page 1. IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . 1 2. TheoryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦